Principales líneas de investigación de la esclerosis múltiple - Europedias.com
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Principales líneas de investigación de la esclerosis múltiple

Actualmente se considera que la esclerosis múltiple no tiene una única causa, sino que responde a una combinación de factores. Por este motivo, debe ser investigada de forma coordinada desde distintas disciplinas.

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La investigación sobre las causas y el desarrollo de la esclerosis múltiple es básica para entender la enfermedad y poder combatirla mejor. Se trata de un camino lento en el que las cinco principales disciplinas implicadas en la enfermedad deben coordinarse bien y poner sus resultados en común. Estas áreas son:

 

Investigación genética

La esclerosis múltiple no es una enfermedad hereditaria, pero la susceptibilidad a tener EM sí podría serlo. Los genes juegan un rol en la EM y los investigadores trabajan para encontrar las relaciones entre los factores ambientales y los factores genéticos, para determinar cómo se causa la EM.

A día de hoy, se han descubierto más de 200 genes relacionados con la esclerosis múltiple. Muchos de estos genes se encargan de codificar el sistema inmunológico. También se investigan las relaciones entre estos genes y aspectos como el embarazo o los niveles de vitamina D. Sin embargo, tener alteraciones en estos genes no implica necesariamente que la enfermedad deba desarrollarse.

Los genes juegan un rol en la EM y actualmente también se investigan las relaciones entre estos genes y aspectos como el embarazo o la vitamina D.

 

Investigación ambiental

Según muchos estudios, el entorno podría desempeñar un papel fundamental para desarrollar esclerosis múltiple. Por ejemplo, la exposición a la luz solar y unos altos niveles de vitamina D reducirían la probabilidad de tener la enfermedad. Los investigadores creen que la vitamina D podría ayudar a regular el sistema inmunitario y reducir el riesgo de EM o enfermedades autoinmunes en general.

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Las zonas geográficas también importan: en los países cercanos al ecuador, con más horas de luz, la enfermedad es menos frecuente. También se ha encontrado relación con el hábito de fumar o la exposición a determinados virus en ciertos momentos de la vida (como el de la mononucleosis).

 

Investigación epidemiológica

La mayor parte de los factores ambientales se descubren gracias a los estudios epidemiológicos. Estos estudios recogen datos poblacionales (edad de presentación de los síntomas, forma de presentación, infecciones previas…) y los analizan para detectar diferencias entre las personas con y sin EM. También se estudia la evolución de la enfermedad.

Las últimas investigaciones epidemiológicas sitúan a España como país con una prevalencia media-alta de EM. Esta prevalencia ha aumentado de manera paulatina durante los últimos años, hasta situarse en los 80-180 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes en la actualidad.

 

Investigación inmunológica

La EM es un trastorno autoinmune, así que las alteraciones en el sistema inmunológico desempeñan un papel muy importante en su desarrollo. De hecho, los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad (TME) actúan en el sistema inmunológico.

El rol del sistema inmunológico en la EM sigue siendo una de las principales áreas de investigación para encontrar tratamientos que puedan revertir los efectos de la enfermedad. Algunos estudios investigan los efectos del trasplante de células madre para reducir los ataques al sistema nervioso central.

La esclerosis múltiple se considera una enfermedad autoinmune, aunque la investigación todavía debe determinar el rol exacto del sistema inmunológico en la exacerbación de la enfermedad.

 

Investigación neurobiológica

Uno de los grandes problemas de la esclerosis múltiple es que se trata de una enfermedad degenerativa. Aunque los TME ayudan a controlar los ataques de la EM en el sistema inmunológico, no ayudan a reparar los daños causados ​​en la mielina.

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Las investigaciones en el área neurobiológica podrían ayudar a comprender ese fenómeno. Además, podrían permitir encontrar un proceso para regenerar la mielina, la sustancia que recubre los nervios y resulta dañada por la esclerosis múltiple.

 

Muchos de estos estudios se realizan con la colaboración de distintos centros de esclerosis múltiple de todo el mundo. Solo con la colaboración de todos los equipos humanos (personas con EM, familiares, médicos, científicos, etc.) conseguiremos acercarnos y comprender mejor esta compleja enfermedad.

 

Referencias

Investigaciones sobre EM. MS in focus. Multiple Sclerosis International Federation. Disponible en: https://www.msif.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/MS-in-focus-17-Research-English.pdf

Genetics and MS. MS Society UK. Disponible en: https://www.mssociety.org.uk/research/explore-our-research/emerging-research-and-treatments/genetics-and-ms

Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Disponible en: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Multiple-Sclerosis-Hope-Through-Research#causes

Epidemiología de la esclerosis múltiple en España. Neurología. Disponible en: https://www.neurologia.com/articulo/2018477

Inmune system and MS. MS Society UK. Disponible en: https://www.mssociety.org.uk/research/explore-our-research/emerging-research-and-treatments/immunomodulation